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Deposits, composition and technological behavior of fluxes for ceramic tiles

Michele Dondi, Guia Guarini, Sonia Conte, Chiara Molinari, Roberto Soldati, Chiara Zanelli


The ceramic tile industry is a big consumer of feldspathic rocks and further raw materials able to act as flux during firing. This demand is currently fed with the recourse to a wide range of sources of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic and metasomatic origin. The main geological features of flux deposits actually exploited by the ceramic industry are reviewed. The chemical and mineralogical composition is described to have a general picture of raw fluxes as well as average data and compositional perimeter for deposits of different origin. Overall beneficiation routes are drawn to trace the compositional path from deposit to commercial flux. The technological behavior in tile-making is shortly overviewed and new experimental data are provided on flux fusibility (by hot-stage microscopy). A chart is proposed to discriminate fluxes according to different fusibility.


ceramic tile; feldspar deposit; flux; fusibility.

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0369-8963 - ISSN ONLINE: 2239-1002